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South African Armed Forces

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Brief Description

1 Intelligence Unit
1 Intelligence Unit was an SA Army intelligence unit based in Kimberley, which was used to place intelligence staff out to the different formations and commands. Technically speaking, it formed part of the SA Army Intelligence School

1 Military Printing Regiment
1 Military Printing Unit [Afr: 1 Militêre Drukeenheid] was established in 1975 with a mandate to deliver mapping to soldiers and was responsible for the printing of maps. It was upgraded to regimental status and renamed to 1 Military Printing Regiment [Afr: 1 Militêre Drukregiment] in around 1994 before being relocated from Koedoespoort. It was finally amalgamated with 4 Survey and Mapping Regiment some time around 2010 to form the Engineer Terrain Intelligence Regiment which formed part of the SA Army Engineer Formation of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF). The new unit is based in Pretoria, Gauteng, and is responsible for providing the cartography needs of the South African Army.

2 Intelligence Unit
2 Intelligence Unit was a Citizen Force army intelligence unit based in the Witwatersrand Command

2 Locating Regiment
2 Locating Regiment was the second of three regiments that provided target locating services to the SAA(Fd) and could trace its origins back to its creation at the University of Witwatersrand. By June 1951 a command nucleus could conduct its first training camp in Potchefstroom. In 1960, 2 Locating Battery SAA was renamed to only 2 Locating Battery. By 1966 the unit moved from Auckland Park to Doornkop Military Base. The regiment specialized in the technical search of enemy battery fire by means of delicate and sophisticated measuring equipment, such as radar and meteorology and comprised only of 22 Battery. This battery would have typically comprised of an Intelligence Section, a Meteorological Section, a Radar Troop of three radar sections each with a radar set, a Sound Ranging Troop, a Survey Troop, and an Observation Troop. It was renamed to the Johannesburg Artillery Regiment in 1990 and was finally amalgamated, together with 7 Medium Regiment, into the Transvaal Horse Artillery Regiment.

3 Intelligence Regiment
3 Intelligence Regiment was an SA Army intelligence unit based in Pretoia

3 Locating Regiment
3 Locating Regiment [Afr: 3 Opspringsregiment] was converted from the original 3 Locating Battery [Afr: 3 Opsporingsbattery], which had formed part of 4 Field Regiment (also often attached to the School of Artillery), in Potchefstroom. The regiment was the third of three dedicated regiments that provided target locating services to the SAA(Fd). The regiment provided divisional troops but was typically organised to allocate locating batteries to brigades. The battery typically comprised of an Intelligence Section, a Meteorological Section, a Radar Troop of three radar sections each with a radar set, a Sound Ranging Troop, a Survey Troop, and an Observation Troop.

5 Air Depot
5 Air Depot (5AD) was originally created in 1940 to maintain aircraft of the SAAF but got absorbed into 1 Air Depot in 1941. With the advent of the Border War it ws re-established as 4 Air Depot at AFB Waterkloof and responsible for fourth-line-service and maintenance of radio- and radar-equipment used for air-defence. On 19 January 1982 the name of 5 Air Depot was authorised and the unit was officially opened as such on 4 June 1982. The base-layout was originally designed to provide depot-level-servicing of air-electronic-equipment of the SAAF, but in time it was expanded to include the Air Force's electronic engineers, Electronic-Warfare Centre as well as the Signal Intelligence Section. It became 5 Air Servicing Unit (5 ASU) around 1999, performing maintenance and support functions for the SAAF units at Air Force Base Waterkloof..

5 Signal Regiment
5 Signal Regiment (5 SIG) [Afr: 5 Seinregiment] was established as a regiment at Wonderboom on 1 April 1981 in order to take over the electronic-warfare (EW) responsibility from 2 Signal Regiment, including all EW-tasks in South West Africa. It deployed EW troops to Grootfontein, Otjiwarongo, Opuwa, Rundu during the Border War and provided EW-support to operations in SWA and Angola, including Operations Moduler, Hooper and Packer in 1987/88. The unit was actively involved in Operation BRUSH, an ongoing military intelligence operation designed to enable basic EW intercepts in northern SWA until 1989

11 Commando
11 Commando (11 CMDO) [Afr: 11 Kommando] was formed at Kimberley and Gazetted in November 1973. The first intake of NSM's arrived from 9 January 1974. Most of the DTCS Training/Recruit wing Staff were transferred to this new Battalion. A lot more staff were transferred in. As most of recruits were area bound (Farmers, Business owners and essential service members) they would be allocated to Commando's after their initial training, they retained the Commando beret badge. It was a independent infantry battalion with Higher HQ North West Command in Potchefstroom. On 1 April 1974 the unit's area of responsibility was enlarged by the acquisition of an additional company, stationed at Jan Kempdorp. 11 Commando was disbanded in 1982 and on the 21st June of the same year the SA Intelligence School (SA INT S) was established and took over the 11 Commando lines. It retained the name 11 Commando for its base.

116 Battalion
116 Battalion (116 BN) [Afr: 116 Bataljon] was to be established as one of nine regional African battalions to train black soldiers, each with a particular ethnic identity which would serve under regional SADF commands. It was eventually raised at Messine in 1986 as an original platoon of only 14 men but expanded quickly. The first personnel consisted of former Rhodesian soldiers who had moved to South Africa and were mustered by the Intelligence Corps. 64 Tsonga soldiers from 113 Battalion was also integrated in the newly formed Battalion. Recruitment was also done from the Lebowa Homeland to finally bring the Battalion up to strength. 116 Battalion initially resorted under Far North Command and finally with the Soutpansberg Military Area. The unit was disbanded around 1999 as its main function of border control had been issued to the South African Police Service.

Bophuthatswana Defence Force Headquarters
The Bophuthatswana Defence Force Headquarters (BDF HQ) [Afr: Bophuthatswana Weermag Hoofkwartier] consisted of a Chief of Staff Personnel (including the Chief Military Law Officer, Military Police and sport sections), Chief of Staff Intelligence, Chief of Staff for Communication Operation (COMOPS, which included the BDF Band and Entertainment Group), Chief of Staff Operations (who controls the BDF Task Force), Chief of Staff Training (in control of the Military School at Molopo), Chief of Staff Logistics (who is responsible for the BDF Depot, One Maintenance Unit and Technical Service Unit), Chief of Staff Finance, Chief of Staff Medical Services (with an Operational Medical Wing and Medical Stores), Senior Staff officer (lt. col.) telecommunications, and Chief Chaplain.

Central Phototechnical Establishment
The Central Phototechnical Establishment (CPE) was estblished as a unit in its own right in February 1950, but its history can be traced back to 1921 when the first photographer was recruited to join the newly established SAAF. The unit has always used the latest technology and in most cases even took the lead with regards to aerial reconnaissance. Right from the beginning the skills and knowledge of the photographers proved to be indispensable to the SAAF. The unit's members have sen action since 1922 during the miners' rebellion, former Bechuanaland, South West Africa, Rhodesia and more recently, Angola. Unit members were also assigned to various squadrons in the Second World War and saw action in Central Africa, Egypt and later in Korea.

Chief of Air Staff Intelligence (AS2)*
The Chief of Air Staff Intelligence (AS2) of the South African Air Force provided intelligence-based staff services to the Chief of the Air Force and was the second of the six departments and thus numbered as such. The staff functions were all based at the Air Force Headquarters in Pretoria.

Chief of Air Staff Logistics (AS4)*
The Chief of Air Staff Logistics (AS4) of the South African Air Force provided intelligence-based staff services to the Chief of the Air Force and was the fourth of the six departments and thus numbered as such. The staff functions were all based at the Air Force Headquarters in Pretoria.

Chief of Air Staff*
The Chief of Air Staff (AS) of the South African Air Force provided staff services to the Chief of the Air Force and comprised of six departments: Personnel, Intelligence, Operations, Logistics, Finance, and Planning, numbered from one to six. The staff function was based at the Air Force Headquarters in Pretoria.

Chief of Army Staff (GS)*
The South African Chief of Army Staff (GS) provided staff services to the Chief of the Army and comprised of six departments: Personnel, Intelligence, Operations, Logistics, Finance, and Planning, numbered from one to six. The staff function was based at the Army Headquarters in Pretoria.

Chief of Army Staff Intelligence (GS2)*
The South African Chief of Army Staff Intelligence (GS2) provided intelligence-based staff services to the Chief of the Army and was the second of the six departments and thus numbered as such. The staff functions were all based at the Army Headquarters in Pretoria.

Chief of Defence Force Administration
The Chief of Defence Force Administration* (CDA) [Afr: Hoof van Weermagsadministrasie (HWA)] was established in 1970 as a result of reorganisation of the top command- and control-structure of SADF due to the growing threat against the RSA. Specific responsibilities of the Commandant-General were delegated to the CDA and included high-level personnel affairs, general administration, efficiency studies and -research, as well as Quartermaster-General issues. The CDA was a four-legged governing body which included the Director-General of Personnel, the Quartermaster-General, the Director-General of General Administration, and the Director-General of Management Services. The divisional heads of these specialised divisions now reported to the Chief of Defence Force Administration (CDA) and no longer directly to the Commandant-General (CG). The creation of Staff Sections (personnel, intelligence, operations, and logistics) for each armed service, each under its own Chief of Staff, led to the discontinuation of the post of CDA on 15 April 1974.

Chief of Defence Force Staff
The SADF's Chief of Defence Force Staff (C Def F S) was a lieutenant general post in the South African Defence Force which traces its origins from the sixties, through 1976, to be re-established in 1986, specifically to provide staff services to the Chief of the Defence Force and coordinate all efforts of the Chief of Staff Personnel, Chief of Staff Intelligence, Chief of Staff Operations, Chief of Staff Logistics, Chief of Staff Finances and Chief of Staff Planning, which were numbered from one to six. The staff function was based at the Defence Force Headquarters in Pretoria. Each service, the SA Army, SA Air Force, SA Navy and SA Medical Services, contained the same staff sections.

Chief of Medical Staff Intelligence (MS2)*
The South African Medical Services' Chief of Medical Staff Intelligence (MS2) provided intelligence-based staff services to the Surgeon General and was the second of the six departments and thus numbered as such. The staff functions were all based at the SAMS Headquarters.

Chief of Medical Staff Logistics (MS4)*
The South African Medical Services' Chief of Medical Staff Logistics (MS4) provided intelligence-based staff services to the Surgeon General and was the fourth of the six departments and thus numbered as such. The staff functions were all based at the SAMS Headquarters.

Chief of Medical Staff*
The South African Medical Services' Chief of Medical Staff (MS) provided staff services to the Surgeon Gerneral and comprised of six departments: Personnel, Intelligence, Operations, Logistics, Finance, and Planning, numbered from one to six. The staff function was based at the SAMS Headquarters.

Chief of Staff Intelligence (CS2)
The Chief of Staff Intelligence (CSI) provided intelligence-based staff services to the Chief of the SADF and was the second of the eventual six staff sections and thus numbered as such (CS2) [Afr: HS2]. The staff functions were all based at the Defence Force Headquarters in Pretoria. Each service: the SA Army, the SA Air Force, the SA Navy and the SA Medical Services, had its own Intelligence Staff function.

Danie Theron Combat School
Danie Theron Combat School (DTCS) [Afr: Danie Theron Krygskool (DTKS)] was established at Kimberley in November 1967 as the Commando Combat School [Afr: Kommando-krygskool] and renamed in 1968. The School was initially responsible for basic military training and the majority of the recruits were area bound farmers, business owners, or essentials services. These recruits were to be allocated to regional commandos after their initial training. By 1973, the majority of the DTCS training/recruit wing staff were transferred to a new unit, 11 Commando, also in Kimberley. Since 1977, the DTCS was responsible for promotional courses for the Commandos and the Civilian Force. Officers and NCOs were trained in conventional and counter insurgence warfare. Promotional and Corps specific training was eventually transferred to other schools by the mid 1980s. In 1990 the name of the SA Intelligence School, which had previously been moved to Potchefstroom in 1988, was changed to Danie Theron Combat School resulting in DTCS subsequently based at Potchefstroom. (On 1 June 1996 the name of this unit was again changed, this time to School of Intelligence). [Also see SA Intelligence School]

Defence Command Council
The Defence Command Council [Afr: Verdedigingsbevelsraad] was based in Pretoria under the chairmanship of the Chief of the SADF and included the Chief of the Army (C Army), the Chief of the Air Force (CAF), the Chief of the Navy (C Navy) and the Surgeon General (SG) who was the Chief of the Medical Service. Other members included the Chief of Defence Force Staff (CDFS); the Chief od Staff Personnel (CSP), the Chief of Staff Intelligence (CSI), the Chief of Staff Operations (CS Ops), the Chief of Staff Logistics (CSL), the Chief of Staff Finance (CSF), and the Chief of Staff Planning (CS Plan), who also acted as Secretary of the Council. The Director of Public Relations (DPR), the Personal Staff Office of the Chief of the SADF (PSO CSADF) as well as the Sergeant-Major of the SADF made up the remainder of the Council.

Defence Headquarters Personnel Unit
Defence Headquarters (DHQ) Personnel Unit [Afr: Verdedigingshoofkwartier (VHK) Personneeleenheid]

Director Counter-Intelligence
The Director of Counter-Intelligence [Afr: Direkteur Teeninligting] was established as an additional fifth leg constituting the command-and-control structure under the Chief of Defence Force Administration (CDA) between 1968 and 1974.

Director General Military Intelligence
The Director-General Military Intelligence (DGMI) [Afr: Direkteur-Generaal Militêre Inligting] was a post within the Military Intelligence Division (MID) specifically created to allow for closer liaison between Military Intelligence and Counter-Intelligence by placing of the two sections under a common head from 29 November 1971. The expansion and modernization of the SA Defence Force during the late sixties and early seventies was accompanied by an organizational restructuring in terms of which the four-pronged staff division system was introduced in 1974. MID now became a specialist staff division with the aim of providing the SA Defence Force with military intelligence and a counter-intelligence service. With effect from 15 April 1974 DGMI became Chief Staff Intelligence (CSI) directly responsible to Chief of the South African Defence Force.

Directorate Covert Collection
The Directorate Covert Collection (DCC) [Afr: Direktoraat Koverte Insameling (DKI)] was a military Intelligence formation of a civilian front organisation, within Military Intelligence Division (MID), to be funded out of the Special Defence account. Within the SADF, DCC was responsible for the small but significant covert collection of intelligence. The first DCC front was Pan-Afrik Industrial Investment Consultants CC (PAIIC CC). Registered on 7 November 1986, it functioned until 28 February 1993 and employed 49 personnel. Other fronts which were created included Africa Risk Analysis Consultants (ARAC), African Information Systems (AFRINFRO) (PTY) LTD and Longreach. In the mid-1980s, the DCC was headed by a Director who reported directly to the Chief of Staff Intelligence. DCC field offices were established in each territorial command.

Directorate Military Intelligence (DMI)
The Directorate of Military Intelligence (DMI) [Afr: Direktoraat Militêre Inligting] was established on 1 Jul 1962 when the status of the intelligence section of the Directorate Planning and Operations was elevated to that of directorate. The directorate was responsible for all strategic and some tactical intelligence activities across all the armed services. On 1 Jan 1968 the South African Military Intelligence Corps [Afr: Suid-Afrikaanse Militêre Inligtingskorps] was formed to incorporate the military intelligence personnel in their own corps. All PF members permanently in service with DMI were incorporated in the corps. The Military Intelligence Corps later became the South African Military Intelligence Service [Afr: Suid-Afrikaanse Militêre Inligtingsdiens]. In 1970 DMI became the Military Intelligence Division (MID) due to the rapid expansion of the directorate.

Directorate of Army Intelligence*
The first Director of Army Intelligence was Col Kleintjie van Rooyen and he was followed up by Col Daan Kershoff [Source: Genl Chris can Zyl]

Directorate of Special Tasks
The Directorate of Special Tasks (DST) [Afr: Direktoraat Spesiale Take (DST)] was established in Nov 1976 a highly clandestine operation under Military Intelligence Division (MID). During Operation DISA, it provided materiel and logistics support and coordinated special operations after the withdrawal of the Savannah forces. In 1978 it went on to be a major player in supporting anti-Marxist guerillas against SWAPO/FAPLA et al. By the mid-1980s, DST's functions as well as those of some other structures were centralised under the Directorate Intelligence Operations. During the 1986/87 period a new sub-division of MID was established called Intelligence Operations, under which DST resided. DST was disbanded in 1991 and all records destroyed except one project that was reported to the Truth and Reconcilliation Commission (TRC).

Directorate Planning and Operations
The Directorate of Planning and Operations was established in 1960 when the new Commandant-General, General P.H. Grobbelaar, expanded the South African Defence Force by adding this new directorate. The intelligence section fell under this directorate and was also enlarged on 2 February 1961, when Col M.J. Uys was appointed as Chief Intelligence Officer of the section. On 1 July 1962 the intelligence section's status was elevated to that of directorate, from then known as the Directorate Military Intelligence (DMI).

Joint Air Reconnaissance Intelligence Centre (JARIC)
The Joint Air Reconnaissance Intelligence Centre [Afr: Gesamentlike Lugverkenning Inligting Sentrum "Geelvis"] was established on 1 April 1967 and was initially based at AFB Swartkop as a section of the Central Phototechnical Establishment (CPE). Unit status was attained during 1969. During 1988 building operations started on the new JARIC building at AFB Waterkloof, which was officially opened on 26 January 1990. The Unit was responsible for the exploitation of imagery, from diverse imagery sources within and outside the military, with the specific purpose of producing image intelligence as the primary supplier of imagery-based geo-spatial information for the SADF.

Military Civil Co-Operation Unit (MCCU)
The Military Civil Cooperation Unit (MCCU) [Afr: Militere Burgerlike Samewerkingseenheid] was established in the early 1990s as a civil affairs unit under the Military Intelligence Division (MID) with the purpose to take account of the social, political, cultural, religious, economic, environmental and humanitarian factors during military operations. The unit was often mistaken for the badged unit of the more infamous 'Civil Cooperation Unit' (a clandestine unit run by the State Security Council during latter stages of Apartheid) but It was nothing more than a Civil-Military Co-Operation (CIMIC) unit, i.e. a 'Hearts and Minds' unit, providing for co-ordination and co-operation between the SADF and relevant civil parties, including the national population and local authorities, as well as national and non-governmental organisations and agencies.

Military Headquarters of the Venda Defence Force
The Military Headquarters of the Venda Defence Force was established at Sibasa in 1982 and based on the SADF five-legged staff system with personnel, logistics, operations/ training, finance, intelligence. The heads of all five staff divisions and the commander of the headquarters unit were seconded SADF officers. With the end of the Apartheid era in 1994 in South Africa, the former defence forces of the Bantustans were incorporated into the newly formed South African National Defence Force.

Military Intelligence Division (MID)
The Military Intelligence Division (MID) [Afr: Afdeling Militêre Inligting (AMI)] was formed from the rapidly expanding Directorate Military Intelligence (DMI) in 1970, due to the ever increasing demands that had been made on DMI in order to determine the military threat against the RSA. The division.resided under the intelligence staff component of the SADF (which included personnel, intelligence, operational, logistics, planning and finance). The staff division was run by the Chief of Staff Intelligence (CSI) who was directly responsible to the Chief of the SADF (CSADF). The strategic intelligence function was organised into parallel staff divisions within each Arm of Service of the SADF. By the mid-1980s, MID was organised into three major sub-divisions - military intelligence, counter-intelligence and intelligence operations - and several directorates.

Military Intelligence Division Cape Regional Office
The Military Intelligence Division Cape Regional Office [Afr: Afdeling Militêre Inligting Kaapse Streekkantoor] was established in Cape Town in the early 1970s and was responsible for all strategic and some tactical intelligence activities across all the armed services in the Western Province Command's area of responsibility. While the Military Intelligence Headquarters were established in central Pretoria, offices were opened in Cape Town, Durban and other major centres in South Africa to facilitate the activities of the division. These Military Intelligence Division field offices were mainly responsible for Counter Intelligence as well as some strategic collection. The Military Intelligence Division field office in Cape Town relied on the Western Province Command for Intelligence on the opposition in the area.

Military Intelligence Division Natal Regional Office*
The Military Intelligence Division Natal Regional Office [Afr: Afdeling Militêre Inligting Natalse Streekkantoor] was responsible for all strategic and some tactical intelligence activities across all the armed services in the Natal Command's area of responsibility. Military Intelligence Division offices were opened in Cape Town, Durban and other major centres in South Africa to facilitate the activities of the division. These field offices were mainly responsible for Counter Intelligence and a little strategic collection. The field office in Durban relied totally on Natal Command for Intelligence on the opposition and was situated in the Metal Industries House, fairly close to the old Marine Parade Natal Command Complex. The flash was proposed but as all the members of the unit never wore a uniform it was probably never adopted. (*Emblem proposed but not officailly adopted)

Military Intelligence Headquarters
The Military Intelligence Headquarters of the SADF [Afr: Militêre Inligtinghoofkwartier] was established in central Pretoria in the early 1970s and was responsible for all strategic and some tactical intelligence activities across all the armed services within the SADF's entire area of responsibility within the borders of the Republic. For this purpose regional field offices were opened in Cape Town, Durban and other major centres in South Africa to facilitate the activities of the Military Intelligence Division (MID). These Military Intelligence Division field offices were mainly responsible for Counter Intelligence as well as some strategic collection. Each field office relied on the respective Territorial Commands for Intelligence on the opposition within each command's specific area of responsibility.

SA Air Force College
The South African Air Force College [Afr: Suid-Afrikaanse Lugmag-kollege] was formed as a Wing of the former SA Military College in 1949. In 1950 the Air Wing became the Independent Air Administration and Staff School and in 1951 it was renamed as the SA Air Force College. It was situated in Voortrekkerhoogte (now Thaba Tshwane), Pretoria, and was responsible for the military development of NCO and officers up to the rank of colonel and the training of intelligence staff. The unit was also responsible for the Air Power Development Centre, which was established to develop an air power developmental training capability.

SA Intelligence School
The SA Intelligence School was (SA INT S) was established in 1982 after 11 Commando was disbanded and the school took over the 11 Commando lines at Diskobolos, Kimberley. It retained the name 11 Commando for its base. The SA INT S adopted the same shoulder flash that was worn by 11 Commando and trained both permanent force, citizen force and national servicemen. In 1988, the unit moved to Potchefstroom. In 1990 the name was changed to Danie Theron Combat School, but on 1 June 1996 it was again changed, this time to School of Intelligence.

SA Military Intelligence College
The South African Military Intelligence College (SAMIC) was established at Fort Klapperkop on 2 June 1975 and utilised the buildings of the Radcliffe Observatory with the Directorate Military Intelligence. Before 1975 infantry officers were trained as intelligence officers at the Infantry School at Oudtshoorn. Infantry officers had the choice of either becoming an infantry platoon commander, an infantry transport officer or an intelligence officer. The main dome of the observatory was renovated into a conference facility. Offices developed into classrooms, "temporary" class-rooms were erected and the houses of the observatory personnel developed into guesthouses for guests of the Chief of Intelligence. House Orion was rebuilt and extended after it burned down in the eighties. It was renamed to the South African Defence Intelligence College in 1998.

SA Navy Chief of Staff Intelligence*
The South African Navy Chief of Staff Intelligence (NS2) provided intelligence-based staff services to the Chief of the Navy and was the second of the six departments and thus numbered as such. The staff functions were all based at the Naval Headquarters.

SA Navy Chief of Staff Logistics*
The South African Navy Chief of Staff Logistics (NS4) provided intelligence-based staff services to the Chief of the Navy and was the fourth of the six departments and thus numbered as such. The staff functions were all based at the Naval Headquarters.

SA Navy Chief of Staff*
The South African Navy Chief of Staff (NS) provided staff services to the Chief of the Navy and comprised of six departments: Personnel, Intelligence, Operations, Logistics, Finance, and Planning, numbered from one to six. The staff function was based at the Naval Headquarters.

SAAF Electronic Warfare Centre
The SAAF Electronic Warfare Centre consists of seven sections: Operations, Training, Analysis, Technical Evaluation, Logistic Support, Engineering Services, and Maintenance.

South African Army Intelligence Corps
The South African Army Intelligence Corps - (SA Int C) [Afr: Suid-Afrikaanse Leërinligtingskorps (SA Inl K)]

South African Defence College
The South African Defence College (SADC) [Afr: Suid-Afrikaanse Verdedigingskollege] was established at Voortrekkerhoogte as a joint staff-training institution in terms of SADF Order 37/72 on 1 Mar 1972. The opening ceremony was on 5 Mar 1973. The aim of the Joint Staff Course was to prepare officers for senior command and staff posts by means of the study of advanced military management, joint operations and relevant aspects of National and International Security against the background of functional strategy. The SADC was to provide the highest level of military training available in the SADF at that time. It focused on the military strategic level, involved participation by other departments concerned with security such as Intelligence, Police and Prison Services and was aimed primarily at the senior colonel level in order to prepare them for promotion to Brigadier.

South African Defence Force
The South African Defence Force (SADF) [Afr: Suid-Afrikaanse Weermag] comprised the South African armed forces from 1957 until 1994. Shortly before the state reconstituted itself as a republic in 1961, the former Union Defence Force was officially succeeded by the SADF, which was established by the Defence Act (No. 44) of 1957. The SADF was organised to perform a dual mission: to counter possible insurgency in all forms, and to maintain a conventional military arm which could defend the republic's borders, making retaliatory strikes as necessary. As the military expanded during the 1970s and 1980s, the SADF general staff was organised first into five, and then finally, into six sections - finance, intelligence, logistics, operations, personnel, and planning. It originally omprised mainly of the three Armed Services: the South African Army, the South African Air Force, and the South African Navy; but in 1979 the South African Medical Service was added as a fourth Service.

Transkei Defence Headquarters*
The Transkei Defence Force (TDF)'s Defence Headquarters [Afr: Transkei Weermaghoofkwartier] (which was about 170 strong, all told) was home to the acting commander, the acting chief of staff and various staff departments. These included the directors of personnel, logistics, intelligence, operations, finance, planning and the inspector-general (all brigadiers). Also based at Defence Headquarters was the Director of the Air Wing and the Director Special Forces. Included within the various directorates are the legal, finance, medical, signals and military police sections.




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