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PREMIUM CONTENT: EMPLOYMENT OF ARTILLERY WEAPONS AND FIRE

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EMPLOYMENT OF ARTILLERY WEAPONS AND FIRE

35.              Classification of Launchers.  Launchers are classified as follows :

a.     By Type

i.                 Guns.  This term is used to refer to....

(1)  Long...length)

(2)  Smaller...

(3)  Fixed...

(4)  High...

(5)  Lower...(less than 800 mil - 45 degrees).

(6)  Long...

(7)  High...

ii.              Howitzers.  This term is used to refer to...

(1)  Short...

(2)  Large...

(3)  Separate...

(4)  Low...

(5)  Upper...

(6)  Short...

(7)  Low...

iii.          Gun Howitzers.  This term is used to refer to...

(1)  Long...

(2)  Large...

(3)  Separate...

(4)  High...

(5)  Upper...

(6)  Long...

(7)  High...

iv.              Mortars.  This term refers to...

(1)  Short...

(2)  Fin...

(3)  Only upper...

(4)  Muzzle...

(5)  Low...

(6)  Short...

(7)  Very high...

(8)  No...

(9)  Very...

v.                 Multiple Rocket Launchers (MRL).   The  main characteristics of MRLs are :

(1)  Fire...

(2)  A large...

(3)  The rockets...

(4)  While the launcher is...

(5)  The MRL has...

(a)  The burning rocket motor...

(b)  The MRL is not capable of...

b.     By Method of Propulsion

i.                 Towed.  In this case the barrel is...

ii.              Self Propelled (SP).  In this case the barrel is...

c.     By Method of Obturation.  Guns and Gun-howitzers are further classified as Breech loading (BL) or Quick Firing (QF).  This classification has...

i.                 Quick Firing (QF).   QF ordnance...

ii.              Breech Loading (BL).  BL ordnance charges are...

iii.          OF vs BL.  Whereas the QF system allows for...

d.     Calibre.  Internationally ordnance is classified according...

i.                 Light.  Light artillery refers to...

ii.              Field.  Field artillery refers to...

iii.          Medium.  Medium artillery refers to...

iv.              Heavy.   Heavy artillery refers to...

v.                 Traditionally the term Extra Heavy or Super Heavy was...

36.              The Weapons of the SAA

a.     The projectile, bomb and rocket...

b.     Artillery ammunition consists of... The components are :

i.                 Fuzes.  The fuze is a... The following fuze types will be found.

(1)  Direct Action/Delay Fuzes.

(2)  Proximity fuzes.

(3)  Time fuzes.

(4)  Multi-option fuzes.

ii.              Projectiles. The projectile delivers...

(1)  High Explosive (HE).

(2)  Carrier Projectile of the following types.

(a)  Phosphorous.

(b)  Smoke (Screening and coloured).

(c)  Illumination.

(d)  Submunition. (Cluster or ICM)

(e)  Leaflet (Propaganda).

(f)  Radar Echo (Chaff)

(3)  All or some of the projectiles could...

iii.          Propelling Charges (Charges).  The propelling charge imparts...

iv.              Primers.  The function of the primer is...

c.     Due to the varieties of ammunition types...

37.              The Effect of Artillery Fire

a.     In all modern conventional wars...

b.     The effects of artillery fire are

i.                 Physical.  Artillery fire causes...

ii.              Psychological.  The psychological effect of artillery fire is...

c.     Physical Effects

i.                 The  physical  effects  of  artillery  fire  arc determined by;

(1)  Enemy...

(2)  Protection...

(3)  The posture...

(4)  The ... of the fire.

(5)  The lethality...

(6)  The duration...

(7)  The tactical...

ii.              The  physical  effects  of  artillery  fire  are... the following :

(1)  Destruction.  A target is considered destroyed when...

(2)  Neutralization.  A target is considered neutralized when...

(3)  Suppression.  A target is considered suppressed when...

d.     Psychological Effects

i.                 As can be seen...

ii.              The psychological effects...

(1)  The morale...

(2)  The physical...

(3)  Quality of ...

(4)  The psychological...

(5)  The physical and psychological...

(6)  Residual effects of...

iii.          The psychological effects of artillery fire can be classified as follows :

(1)  Demoralization.   Demoralization is ...

(2)  Neutralization. Neutralization is...

(3)  Suppression.  Suppression degrades...

(4)  Harassment.  Harassment is...

e.     To extract the maximum...

38.              The Tactical Employment of Artillery Fire

a.     Fire and movement are...

b.     While air delivered fire...

c.     As a rule artillery is...

d.     The effectiveness of fire...

e.     For the effective employment of fire...

f.     In the development of the battle...

g.     Fire is the decisive means of...

i.                 Inflict...

ii.              Attrite...

iii.          Destroy or...

iv.              Prevent...

v.                 To slow the...

vi.              Facilitate the...

h.     Manoeuvre of own forces...

i.     Fire support can be...

i.                 Preparatory Bombardments.  Intensive engagements of enemy positions...

ii.              Covering Fire Before and During The Attack. Covering fire facilitates...

iii.          Fire Support in Depth.  Fire support in depth can...

iv.              Defensive Fire (DFD) in Depth.  DF in depth is...

v.                 Close Defensive Fire (CDF).  The aim of CDF tasks is...

vi.              Suppression of Air Defence (SAD).  Suppressive fire...

j.     Counter Bombardment (CB)

i.                 CB has as aim...

ii.              CB is an...

iii.          Location and Acquisition of Enemy Fire Support Resources.  This entails...

iv.              Engagement of Located Fire Support Resources. The engagement of...

v.                 CB-Policy.   A CB-policy must be...

(1)  Silent.   Information is collected but...

(2)  Active.  CB targets are engaged as...

 

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Images from 'Grensoorlog' series, produced by Linda de Jager, reproduced with kind permission from MNET
Images from 'Grensoorlog' series, produced by Linda de Jager, reproduced with kind permission from MNET
Images from 'Grensoorlog' series, produced by Linda de Jager, reproduced with kind permission from MNET
Images from 'Grensoorlog' series, produced by Linda de Jager, reproduced with kind permission from MNET
Images from 'Grensoorlog' series, produced by Linda de Jager, reproduced with kind permission from MNET

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